How does Biosecurity affect productivity and profits in Poultry Farm?
The Whole world came to realise the importance of biosecurity & quarantine during this COVID-19 pandemic. Although this biosecurity and quarantine protocols were in practice in poultry farming since long back, the time has come to implement it strictly in the farm to avoid any chance of outbreak of zoonotic diseases. Poultry farms across the country need to maintain the basic sanitary conditions essential for healthy birds and hygienic products. I believe, an integrated biosecurity programme follows 3 basic parameters:
- Monitoring of disease status
- Evaluation of ongoing poultry farm operations to contain the Disease at a Bare minimum level
Biosecurity is the cheapest and at the same time the most effective means of control available without which any disease prevention programme will not be work well. The most effective form of protection against disease, especially for poultry under modern production techniques is biosecurity i.e. excluding disease from the farm environment and this holds the key to successful profitable farming.
How does Diseases spread in Poultry Farms?
The primary method of spreading disease causing microorganisms between poultry flocks is the use of contaminated equipment or exposure to contaminated clothing and footwear of humans. Infected animals, such as wild birds and rodents, can also be a source of disease for poultry flocks. Disease causing viruses and bacteria can be transported from one flock to another on bird transporting equipment, trucks, tractors and other farm equipment as well as egg trays and cases. Humans and animals are also important ways of transporting disease causing organisms. Disease causing microbes have been found on human’s clothes, shoes, skin, and hair. As a result, many hatcheries and breeder facilities utilize shower in and shower out protocols as part of their biosecurity programs. Animals such as dogs, cats, mice, rats and free flying birds are also known to be carriers of disease organisms. Insects such as flies, beetles, and mosquitoes are well known to be carriers of disease microbes as well. Another, but less risky form of transmission is through the air.
Does Biosecurity protocol differ for different types of Poultry farms like Broiler farms, Layer farms or Hatcheries?
The basic Biosecurity factors like Isolation, Water quality, Disinfection, Rodent control and Litter management remain constant for all the types of Poultry farms. But there might be some other Biosecurity practices which might be more important depending on the farm type. Like for example, In Hatcheries Egg cleaning and sanitation becomes important for proper hatching of Eggs. Fumigation is also important in Hatcheries to control the microbial load in the Hatchery area. In Layer Farms, frequent equipment cleaning and disinfection becomes important as the Birds are house for 16-18 months during the laying stage.
Why do you think Water management and water quality plays a important role in Poultry Management ?
Quality water and Good Quality Nutrition helps in regulating Body temperature, digesting food and eliminating waste. Water is involved in every aspect of animal metabolism. It’s very simple, Good quality water and Good quality feed intake leads to good Digestion, eventually helping in growth of Body Weight. Good Digestion helps in producing good litter, eventually helping in disease control and proper litter management. If any poultry Farmer following these practices, they will see a reduction in cost of production and a healthy flock.
I will recommend these five Tips for ensuring Good Water Quality –
Tip1 – Apply Water Sanitation.
Tip 2 – Test Water Quality regularly
Tip 3 – Check for Biofilm
Tip 4 – Thoroughly clean the Water Systems between the flocks.
Tip 5 – Aim for Optimum pH level.
How do you think that the current Biosecurity practices being followed in Indian Poultry Industry ?
With the Help of technology and awareness about Poultry farming in India, I believe Biosecurity measures are yet to be implemented at small scale poultry farming. Obviously, In Commercial Broiler and Layer Farming there are strict Biosecurity measures that are being followed. Mostly Farmers concentrate on medicines related to gut health & other Medicines available in the market, to reduce the Mortality level in the Farms, ignoring the Biosecurity part. Unless there is a Disease breakout, the Biosecurity measures are being followed for a short period. Bio-security is a consistent practice of continuous Hygiene, cleaning and Disinfection in the Poultry Farms. With constant interaction with our customers, we have experienced that the farmer who invests and follows strict Biosecurity measures reduce their losses by 18% even during the outbreak of any Disease.